Spontaneous genetic changes which saved some species from extinction are known from evolution. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is responsible for those changes. HGT is defined as transfer of gene from one specie (usually prokaryotic) to the other (often eukaryotic). New gene enters into intron what is about 95 % of genom whose information is not transferred further. 

The direct operationalization of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) through introns management, particularly involving the manipulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to increase yields in a short time frame of one or a few years is a complex and cutting-edge area of research. While this field is still evolving, and practical applications may be limited, here are hypothetical cases illustrating how HGT and ROS management could potentially contribute to yield improvement:

Case 1: Enhanced Stress Tolerance

Objective: Introduce stress-tolerant genes through HGT to improve crop resilience.

  1. Target Crop: Wheat
  2. Genetic Modification: HGT of stress-tolerant genes from extremophilic bacteria with introns optimized for plant expression.
  3. ROS Management: Introns engineered to regulate ROS levels during stress conditions.
  4. Expected Outcome: Increased yield under drought or high-temperature stress within a short time frame.

Case 2: Improved Nutrient Uptake

Objective: Enhance nutrient uptake efficiency for better crop nutrition.

  1. Target Crop: Maize
  2. Genetic Modification: HGT of genes associated with enhanced nutrient uptake from nitrogen-fixing bacteria, incorporating introns for plant-specific expression.
  3. ROS Management: Introns designed to modulate ROS levels for optimal nutrient utilization.
  4. Expected Outcome: Improved nutrient assimilation leading to increased yields in a few agricultural cycles.

Case 3: Pest Resistance

Objective: Develop crops with intrinsic resistance to common pests.

  1. Target Crop: Rice
  2. Genetic Modification: HGT of pest-resistant genes from naturally resistant plants with introns optimized for rice expression.
  3. ROS Management: Introns engineered to regulate ROS production during pest attack.
  4. Expected Outcome: Reduced pest damage and improved yield protection over a short period.

Case 4: Accelerated Photosynthesis

Objective: Enhance photosynthetic efficiency for increased biomass.

  1. Target Crop: Soybean
  2. Genetic Modification: HGT of genes associated with efficient photosynthesis from algae, incorporating introns for plant adaptation.
  3. ROS Management: Introns designed to balance ROS levels for optimal photosynthetic performance.
  4. Expected Outcome: Increased biomass and yield potential in a relatively short time.

Case 5: Rapid Adaptation to Climate Change

Objective: Develop crops capable of rapid adaptation to changing climatic conditions.

  1. Target Crop: Barley
  2. Genetic Modification: HGT of climate-resilient genes from native plant species with introns tailored for barley expression.
  3. ROS Management: Introns optimized to modulate ROS responses under varying climatic stresses.
  4. Expected Outcome: Enhanced yield stability and adaptation to climate-induced challenges.

It's important to note that these cases are speculative, and real-world implementation would require rigorous testing, ethical considerations, and regulatory approvals. The actual impact and feasibility of such strategies may vary based on technological advancements and scientific discoveries in the field of genetic engineering.