Masaryk University

Faculty of Economics

Study branch: Corporate Economy and Management

GUERILLA MARKETING – ANALYSIS OF A

PRACTICAL EXAMPLE

Bachelor thesis

Mentor: Author:

Ing. Anida KRAJINA Ivana KNAPOVÁ

Brno, 2018

 

 

MASARYKOVA UNIVERZITA

Ekonomicko-správní fakulta

ZADÁNÍ BAKALÁŘSKÉ PRÁCE

Akademický rok: 2017/2018

Studentka:

Obor:

Název práce:

Název práce anglicky:

Cíl práce, postup a použité metody:

Ivana Knapová

Podniková ekonomika a management

Guerilla marketing - analýza praktického příkladu

Guerilla marketing - analysis of a practical example

Cil práce: Cílem diplomové práce je zkoumat a vysvětlit praktický příklad guerillového marketingu a propojit ho s teoretickými koncepty.

Postup práce a použité metody: Autor této práce provede analýzu v několika krocích včetně: 1. Přehled literatury o teorii guerillového marketingu; 2. Definování

problému a situační analýza vybraného příkladu; 3. Shrnutí zjištění a doporučení

pro management na základě zjištění. Navržené metody, které budou použity:

analýza, syntéza, srovnání, metody marketingového výzkumu a další metody,

které lze použit při řešení konkrétního marketingového problému.

Rozsah grafických prací:

Rozsah práce bez příloh:

Literatura:

Podle pokynů vedoucího práce

35 – 45 stran

BELCH, G. a B. BELCH. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing

Communications Perspective. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2011. 864 s.

ISBN 978-0-07-340486-8.

FILLIS, Ian a Ruth RENTSCHLER. Creative marketing : an extended metaphor for

marketing in a new age. 1st pub. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan,

2006. xi, 161. ISBN 1403941904.

LEVINSON, Jay Conrad. Guerilla marketing. Translated by Lucie Schürerová. Vyd.

1. Brno: Computer Press, 2009. 326 s. ISBN 9788025124727.

JIRÁKOVÁ, Pavlína. Guerilla marketing v marketingové strategii drobných lokálních producentů. In Mezinárodní Baťova konference pro doktorandy a mladé

vědecké pracovníky. Zlín: Fakulta managementu a ekonomiky Univerzity Tomáše

Bati ve Zlíně, 2008. s. 296-303, 8 s. ISBN 978-80-7318-663-0.

The marketing centuryhow marketing drives business and shapes society : The

Chartered Institute of Marketing. Edited by Jeremy Kourdi. Chichester: Wiley,

2011. 272 p. ISBN 9781119993599.

Vedoucí práce: Ing. Anida Krajina

Pracoviště vedoucího práce: Katedra podnikového hospodářství

Datum zadání práce: 3. 10. 2016

Termín odevzdání bakalářské práce a vložení do IS je uveden v platném harmonogramu akademického roku.

V Brně dne: 14. 4. 2018

 

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Name and of the author: Ivana Knapová

Name of the thesis: Guerrilla marketing: analysis of a practical example

Českýnázevpráce: Guerilla marketing: analýza praktického příkladu

Department: Faculty of Economics and Administration

Supervisor: Ing. Anida Krajina

Year of defence: 2018

Abstract

The goal of bachelor thesis „Guerilla marketing – analysis of a practical example“ is to answer research

questions and prove that influence of guerilla marketing can influence decisions of consumers and is able

to trigger new consumer behavior and habits.

In the first part the theoretical basis from available corresponding literature is provided. The second part of

this thesis puts the knowledge into practice. Together with the research conducted on a sample of the

target group seeks for the best solution for the specific company.

Anotace

Cílem bakalářské práce „Guerilla marketing – analýza praktického příkladu” je odpovědět výzkumné

otázky a dokázat, že působení guerilla marketingu může ovlivnit rozhodování konzumentů a je schopné

vyvolat nové chování konzumentů a jejich návyky.

V první části jsou zpracovány teoretické informace z dostupné literatury. Ve druhé části aplikuji tyto

teoretické poznatky v praxi. Zároveň bude proveden výzkum na vybrané cílové skupině, aby bylo

dosaženo nejlepího možného řešení pro zkoumanou společnost.

Keywords

Guerilla marketing, marketing communication, low-cost communication tools, social media marketing,

emotions.

Klíčová slova

Guerilla marketing, marketingová komunikace, nízkonákladové komunikační nástroje, sociální marketing,

emoce. 

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Affidavit

„I declare, that I elaborated the bachelor thesis Guerilla marketing – analysis of a practical

example independently under Ing. Anida Krajina mentoring and I mentioned all used literature

and all professional sources in accordance with the law, internal regulations of Masaryk

University and internal management acts of Masaryk University and Economic faculty MU.“

In Brno, on April 17, 2018

 __________________________________

 Handwritten signature of the author 

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Thanks:

On this place I would like to thank primarily to Ing. Anida Krajina for her patience, willing

to answer my questions in every time period in a day and for inspirational advices during

elaboration of this thesis. I would like to Thank to Mr. Bednář, who is a beekeeper, who

helped me with the practical part of the theses and introduced me to information about

beekeeping and who stocked me with honey during completion of the thesis. I would like to

Thank also all people in the village, who were willing to answer my questions and speak

about honey, guerilla marketing and actual environments problems, which we daily meet. I

would like to Thank also to my family and friends for understanding.

 

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CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………....6

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

1. GOALS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS ................................................................................................ 10

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS..................................................................................................................... 12

2.1 CONCEPT OF MARKETING ............................................................................................................ 12

2.2Marketing in 21th Century ...................................................................................................................... 13

2.2.1Emotion in 21th Century .......................................................................................................... 15

2.3Guerilla marketing ................................................................................................................................. 17

2.3.1Humor in Guerilla marketing ................................................................................................................. 18

2.3.2 Fear in Guerilla marketing ............................................................................................................... 19

2.3.3 Guerilla marketing in the Internet………….……………….…………………...………..………..20

2.3.4 Guerilla marketing plan and strategy……………….………….……………….………………….…..20

2.3.5 Message of Guerilla campaign…………………………………..……………...………….……...21

2.3.6 Guerilla marketing instruments .......................................................................................... 22

2.3.7 Types of guerilla marketing............................................................................................... 22

2.3.8 Differences between traditional and guerilla marketing ......................................................... 23

2.3.9 Existing tips, suggestions and ideas in guerilla marketing ...................................................... 23

3. CUSTOMER´S DECISIONS AND BEHAVIOUR ................................................................................... 28

3.1What influences customer behavior ...................................................................................................... 30

3.2 The main factors influencing cusomer decision .................................................................................. 30

3.3 Comparison of traditional marketing and guerilla marketing .................................................................. 32

 3.4 Influence of guerilla marketing on consumer decision ............................................................................ 34

3.5 Purchase decission ................................................................................................................................... 36

4. PRACTICAL PART……………………….……………...………………………………………………….37

4.1 METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH ....................................................................................... 37

4.2 ABOUT THE SUBJECT............................................................................................................... 40

4.2.1Equipment of a beekeeper ................................................................................................................... 42

4.2.2Bee products ......................................................................................................................................... 43

 4.2.3 Marketing and business perspective of beekeeping .................................................................... 44

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4.2.4 Beekeeping in Czech Republic ........................................................................................................... 47

4.2.5Rules nad legislation in beekeeping in EU ......................................................................................... 47

4.2.6Eating nad buying of honey in research area .................................................................................... 48

4.2.7 Eating nad buying of honey in Czech Republic ................................................................................ 49

 4.3 DATA COLLECTION .................................................................................................................................. 49

 4.4 ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................................................... 51

4.4.1 Explanation of analysis ......................................................................................................................... 51

4.4.2 SWOT analysis .................................................................................................................................... 52

4.4.3 Interview with consumers .................................................................................................. 54

4.5 RESULTS .................................................................................................................................. 55

4.6 RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................................ 57

4.6.1Guerilla marketing plan nad strategy ................................................................................................ 57

4.6.2 Suitable guerilla instruments ........................................................................................................ 60

4.6.2.1Web sites in the Internet ................................................................................................. 61

4.6.2.2Facebook ..................................................................................................................... 61

4.6.2.3Direct communication with people .................................................................................. 62

 4.6.2.4Tourism activities in cooperation with a village ................................................................ 63

 4.6.2.5Activities for children + presents..................................................................................... 63

 4.6.2.6Shock by quality and price ............................................................................................. 64

 4.6.2.7Shock by social attitudes ............................................................................................... 64

 4.6.2.8To be involved in all activities in the village and near surroundings ..................................... 64

 4.6.2.9Advertising in the radio .................................................................................................. 64

 4.6.2.10Big Bee ..................................................................................................................... 65

4.6.2.11 Brand name – a Meme .................................................................................................. 65

CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................................... 66

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................................... 69

APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................................. 74 

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Introduction

Personally I like healthy life style and I am familiar with a yoga life style, meditation, hatha yoga,

pranayama, special eating habits and more. Therefore, I wanted to connect my preferences with

the topic of my bachelor thesis. While I was thinking about subjekt for my bachelor thesis, I have

accidentally watched video about beekeepers and thein problems in this field. That made me

realized that I would like to write about this subjekt. And mostly would like to focus on guerilla

marketing.

Actual problems in beekeeping are: 1) lack of beekeepers; 2) daily fight wih disease like varroa

and dech of bee colony; 3) import of low quality honey mainly from China.

In the introduction of the healthy lifestyle, a lot of preference is given to evoking people

emotions. In order to trigger them, the advertisement needs to be unique and different and to

actually tell certain story. This is where the idea of guerrilla marketing appeared. I believed that

the presentation of the healthy food, such as honey can be done in partially shocking and nonstandard form of advertising. Guerilla marketing is a marketing strategy, which let us trigger

people mind and emotions – they can be irritated, amused or educated by non standard form of

advertising that fills available mass media. Moreover, it can bring success and profit to the

advertiser.

Connecting beekeeping and honey business with guerilla marketing can be observed as a novel

approach. There are no examples of guerilla marketing used in the honey business in Czech

Republic. Moreover, the beekeeping in Czech Republic is in the shadow and to inform masses

about it, certain form of advertising should be used. In addition, it will also promote the natural

products and healthy lifestyle which many people nowadays are striving for.

In this bachelor thesis I would like to use psychological and emotional aspects of Guerilla

marketing together with collected information from honey business area, and research their

potential influence on consumers’ minds, their behavior, habits and purchasing decisions.

The goal and aim of the thesis is to notify readers on actual existing problems in honey business

by using of guerilla marketing instruments and by that to stir up an interest of consumers to buy

honey. The goal of the thesis is to suggest such guerilla marketing instrument that will influence

consumers to buy honey regularly. 

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For purpose of the thesis I researched and analyzed work of a beekeeper from Nekoř. The current

situation of his business, his actions and intentions to run and develop beekeeping were observed.

The aim was to find weak spots and suggest ways to overcome weaknesses and improve the

business.

In the second step I researched beekeeping as a branch in Czech Republic and in the world to find

out about existing guerilla marketing initiatives in the beekeeping business.

The bachelor thesis will research and answer following questions:

a) Can guerilla marketing influence consumer decision making in purchasing honey?

b) What are the ways for small local honey business to apply guerilla marketing and

influence consumer emotions?

 

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1. GOALS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The goal of the thesis is to find and explain existing example of guerilla marketing in practice.

The author will do an analysis of literature about a theory of guerilla marketing. The author will

introduce basic concept of guerilla marketing, differencies between guerilla marketing and

traditional marketing, instruments that are used in guerilla marketing. The author will research

factors that influences consumer behavior and influence of guerilla marketing on consumer

decision. The autor will also find existing examples of guerilla marketing that are able to trigger

consumer emotion and required reaction that should be buying honey product. The researched

notices from literature and internet sources will be connected with a practical example of a

beekeeper.

The goal is to define a problem in honey business. The author asks questions about the current

issue and tries to find answers. Answers are looking through the literature and try to connect the

knowledge with the practical example of a beekeeper.

The author will analyze the beekeeper's behavior and indicate his current approach to his

business. There will be also mentioned the ways in which beekeepers are currently

communicating with their customers in the thesis.

The author will analyze the behavior of customers and honey consumers. She will use data

collection methods by questioning, observing, comparing, marketing research methods. The data

will be analyzed and solutions will be recommended based on their analysis and evaluation.

Authorizing recommendations and solutions will be based on the studied literature. The author

will also use the example of already functioning guerilla marketing.

The author can see a big potential of guerilla marketing to promote awareness of consumers

about honey products. There are existing sources that speak about positive influence of guerilla

marketing on consumers´ decisions and it can be introduced in the thesis.

The author will proceed in following steps: (1) to introduce potential of using guerilla marketing

to promote honey business in Czech Republic; (2) to introduce the influence of guerilla

marketing of honey products on consumers’ perceptions, attitudes, emotions and eating habits; 

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(3) to answer following question: Can guerilla marketing increase the consumption of honey

products and promote better healthy lifestyle?

Due to my personal habits and a lifestyle, I got familiar with healthy benefits of the honey

products. In the usual daily information gathering, I stumble upon the video talking briefly about

the honey business and beekeeping practice.

Obviously, the honey products did have certain positive influences on consumers, but honey

business was in the shadow. At the same time, I went through readings and articles on guerilla

marketing. During my research I found existing examples of using of guerilla marketing in

practice. Some examples of companies that use guerilla marketing are mentioned in the thesis. I

dare to say if guerilla marketing works well and bring profit to different companies (for example

Coca-cola, tobacco industry), there has to be a chance that guerilla marketing will have success in

honey business too.The beekeeping practice is not without problems. Examples of existing

problems in beekeeping are as follows:

 Extinction of bee colonies threatens crop production. Bee experts are trying to boost their

imunity (Česká televize, 2017).

 In spring, the flowers were snowy, the summer was dry. Honey is low, reports beekeepers

(Onderka, 2017).

 Weather, chemistry, viruses. Czech bees are no longer in kontrol (Pelikán, 2017).

Therefore, the articles and information persuaded me that there might be a way to use guerilla

marketing to influence consumer behavior and their emotions, more precisely- honey consumers.

Upon literature review and real-life preferences and examples, the present research focused on

two research questions:

a) Can guerilla marketing influence consumer decision making in purchasing honey?

b) What are the ways for small local honey business to apply guerilla marketing and

influence consumer emotions?

In following chapters I will suggest some ways (I will mention guerilla instruments) that

according to studied information (reference list) are able to support local beekeepers and honey

business. The instruments should evoke required consumer´s emotions and provoke them to buy 

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honey. It is important to do this first step to consumers have the first contact with honey. Than

beekeepers should keep strong relationship with their customers and come with new original

guerilla instruments.

Beekeeping is relatively young practice that may be worth dedicating attention to it. If there is a

chance for guerilla marketing to evoke an interest of consumers, it can also increase awareness of

beekeeping. People usually buy products that they feel suitable for them. That is the reason for

guerilla marketers to find suitable instruments to evoke reaction.

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

There will be described and introduced what guerilla marketing is in the theoretical part. The

theoretical part will also speak about factors influencing consumer behaviour and decision.

2.1 CONCEPT OF MARKETING

Successful marketing builds demand for products and services, which, in turn, creates jobs

(Kotler & Keller, 2012). If consumers need more products and services, their consumption

increases and it creates new tasks and needs for the new marketing strategies. One of the shortest

definition of marketing says: „Meeting needs profitably.“ (Kotler & Keller, 2012). It goes hand in

hand with the assertion above that successful marketing creates jobs.

„The American Marketing Association offers the following formal definition: Marketing is the

activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and

exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

(Kotler & Keller, 2012)

We can understand marketing as an art and science to meet consumer demand. Consumer

demand can be triggered if all departments in a company work hand in glove.

Marketing is no longer responsibility of a single department – it is a company-wide undertaking

that drives the company vision, mission and strategic planning (Kotler & Keller, 2012). Marketing

succeeds only if all departments cooperate together. When all departments work together, they

are able to achieve goals of consumer. 

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Very often goal of marketing is not to offer just only current product that have already been on a

market, but marketing should recognize what kind of product consumer needs and should be able

to come with the new offer on the market.

A successful marketer needs to understand what marketing is, how it works, who does it, and

what is marketed. Coping with these exchange processes calls for a considerable amount of work

and skill. Thus we see marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets

and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating

superior customer value.

2.2 Marketing in 21th Century

Some corporations give their business units freedom to set their own sales and profit goals and

strategies. Others set goals for their business units but let them develop their own strategies. Still

others set the goals and participate in developing individual business unit strategies.

Firms now sell goods and services through a variety of direct and indirect channels. Mass

advertising is not nearly as effective as it was, so marketers are exploring new forms of

communication (Kotler & Keller, 2012), such as experiential, entertainment, viral marketing or

Guerilla marketing.

Customers are telling companies what types of product or services they want. They are also

telling when, where, and how they want to buy them. They are increasingly reporting to other

consumers what they think of specific companies and products—using e-mail, blogs, podcasts,

and other digital media to do so. Company messages are becoming a smaller fraction of the total

“conversation” about products and services (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

Figure 1 shows the influence of information between a company (industry) and a consumer

(market). Consumers provide important information about goods that they want to buy and

companies communicate with them via advertising and by application their marketing

instruments. Companies offer goods and services and consumers pay for them. 

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Figure 1: A simple marketing system.

SOURCE: P. Kotler & K. L. Keller 2012.

Good marketing is no accident, but a result of careful planning and execution using state-of-theart tools and techniques. It becomes both an art and a science as a marketer strives to find creative

new solutions to often-complex challenges amid profound changes in the 21st-century marketing

environment.

Marketing is a customer-oriented philosophy. Due to increasing globalization and technology that

create turbulent, chaotic business environments, marketing needs to be reconceptualised in line

with the realities of contemporary commercial practice. In order to do this, we turn to the

background of the marketing concept by giving an overview of the development of that

marketing theory and practice (Figure 2) (Fillis & Rentschler, 2006).

Figure 2: Development of marketing theory and practice.

SOURCE: I. Fillis & R. Rentschler 2006. 

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2.2.1Emotions in 21th Century

It is known, that 90 % decisions to sell something is happening in the subconscious (Horňák,

2014). The way to the subconscious is by repeating. In other words, if marketers want to persuade

potential customers to buy their product, marketers inform them again and again. They put

Guerilla marketing closer to them.

Emotions used in advertising are humor, confidence, trust, reliability, friendship, happiness,

safety, charm, attraction, luxury, calm, peace, anger, protection of who we love, romance,

passion, family ties with parents, with sibling, with children, with another family members. Per

Patrick De Pelsmacker warmth is other the strongest appeal, which evokes pleasant and positive

feelings as love, friendship, cosines and empathy (Levinson 2011).

Figure 3 shows mentioned appeals and other constants, which can be used in mutual

combinations for building an effective promotional medium. However, the first step for good

advertising or promotion is a big idea. It is important to know a goal of the company, to know

target group of the advertising campaign, also exploration and planned conceptions. Other

aspects, which should be processed and taken into consideration, are forms of processing –

acoustic, visual or audiovisual form.

Figure 3: Emotional appeals.

SOURCE: P. Horňák 2014. 

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In 21th Century the process of consumption is characterized by more dominant and ritual

behavior of consumers. The rituals of consumers consist of the interactions of emotion and

wishes and they give them a new socio-cultural identity. By consumption the consumers build

their self-image that is very important for them (Vysekalová, 2014).

An effect of an emotional marketing is influenced by power of emotion and also by previous

processing of information. The facts that we had received and processed are now assessed more

positive. That means that our decisions are not fully emotional. Consumers usually feel a need to

give reasons to their choice that was originally aroused by emotions (Vysekalová, 2014).

If I want to speak about reasons and ways of consumers´ decision making, it is important to

mention two sides of humans´ brain a) logical/rational and b) irrational/ creative/ emotional.

Following five reasons highlight, why it is important to start the work with customers´

subconscious (Levinson, 2011):

 The brain works with pictures to help subconscious to understand the cause.

 The subconscious is more clever than conscious.

 The subconscious runs inner dialogue.

 The subconscious is able to understand and connect multiple + communications.

 The subconscious decides without any communication with conscious mind.

 Visual, auditory and kinesthetic types of people

Per Paul Hanley, there are five items, which are controlled by consciousness mind and should be

used for sub consciousness marketing. We are talking about following aspects (Levinson, 2011):

 To contact client just only in the time, when you have New information for them.

 To make their business and cooperation with you easier.

 To underline your unique offer during all your activities.

 To be honest and accept just only the most direct ethical standards.

 To understand customers ´needs and to meet them.

 To understand, who your customers are.

 To deal readably and consistently during your marketing.

 To use well targeted goals and persuasion.

 Be like a child 

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2.3 Guerilla Marketing

„As always, we can find an embryo of genius in new ideas. However, full geniality deployment is

caught up just only in imaginations, which are happening, when new ideas bring their fruits.

Guerilla marketing was planted, grow and it was allowed him to flower and bear fruits. I was a

farmer and a witness of the fact, what is showing as an infinite harvest.“ (Levinson, 2011)

Guerilla marketing is characterized by the creative approach and quick results. The nature of

creative marketing is displayed on figure 4.

Figure 4: The nature of creative marketing.

SOURCE: P. Kotler & K. L. Keller 2012.

Guerilla marketing is previously aimed at an idea, speed, and knowledge of needs of customers.

We can notice increased using support of sales, direct marketing, and personal sales. The

company is interested especially in its loyal customers.

The target of the correct Guerilla marketing is to help small and medium companies to fight with

their competition by using lower costs. The draft of Guerilla marketing is not money, but the

idea. Principe of Guerilla marketing is derived from partisan fighting.

Origin of the term “guerilla” is in military terminology; by the term were marked partisan

methods when leading war, or partisan units – little organized military groups that had to face

large or material superiority of enemy. Success of the guerilla units is founded on surprising

battle strategies and unexpected, irregular attacks instead of classical open fighting, where they

should have no chance to success. The philosophy of the military tactics was gradually

implemented in the marketing area (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012). 

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Now, the important part of creating good Guerilla campaign is to create fighting (marketing)

strategy on a good pointed area.

The first usage of the term “Guerilla marketing” was in 1984 in “The Guerilla marketing” by Jay

Conrad Levinson.

Guerilla marketing is often called as “aggressive” marketing because of the fact that Guerilla

marketing uses aggressive campaign in some cases. The aim of the aggressive campaign is to

attack competitors and eliminate their activities (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012).

Basic tactics of Guerilla marketing are defined in three steps: (1) to attack on unexpected places,

(2) to turn attention to direct selected goals, (3) to withdraw immediately (Jurášková & Horňák,

2012).

We live in a powerful time, people toward Green lifestyle changes. This opens up all sorts of

opportunities for the Green Marketing Guerilla which fit into this market - Green goods and

services are much easier to market; They often command a premium price; Green goods and

services are better for the environment (Levinson & Horowitz, 2010).

Guerilla marketing works primarily with psychology that is used as an instrument for market

analysis, and primarily for the analysis of target group of consumers (their behavior, purchase

decisions etc.) (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012).

The main task of Guerilla marketing is to interest consumers with something nontraditional,

interesting, actual, funny, original, unexpected, or shocking. Guerilla marketers find new

possibilities to use new ways, alternative styles, nontraditional advertising channels, new media

and technology or communication tools (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012).

Instead of aiming to gain new customers, it is better to strengthen relationships with existing

customers. The best sources of new clients are usually recommendations from old clients or

increasing of business through old clients.

2.3.1 Humor in Guerilla marketing

Classification of humor in advertising can be structured per character, subject, nation etc. 

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Humor is classified as the strongest and the most popular emotional appeal in advertising. Humor

is familiar with creativity and originality in advertising.

Using the right language in guerilla marketing is important. Language that positions the company

with a friendly, human, or funny voice works well. The study found that language emphasizing

humor, empathy, personification, action, and intellect was highly persuasive, as were phrases that

focused on connectedness and the big picture (Levinson & Horowitz, 2010).

Figure 5,6,7 show examples of humor in guerilla marketing that is used by a beekeeping

organizations on Facebook.

Figure 5: An example of humor in guerilla marketing.

SOURCE: Facebook - Guerilla Beekeepers 2018.

Figure 6 and 7: Examples of humor in guerilla marketing.

SOURCE: Facebook - Beekeeping Humour 2018.

2.3.2 Fear in guerilla marketing

This appeal can be used by spoken word, also drown picture. However, the most effective is an

audiovisual form of advertising, audiovisual effect through the film, television, the Internet or

video recorder. It is the image, which use many media of expression that can make us frightened. 

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Marketers use fear in guerilla marketing, because it “works good” (Horňák, 2014). An example

of good work of fear in guerilla marketing can be described in a case, when we want to invite

people for a Halloween party. Another form of fear in advertising is warming before house

violence or in case of blood or organ donation.

2.3.3 Guerilla marketing in the Internet

Philosophy of Guerilla marketing was gradually applied also in the Internet. It was in concept of

viral marketing. Contents of viral messages make a nontraditional Guerilla campaign that is

emailed among consumers spontaneously. The Guerilla campaigns often cause stir, they are

discussed, and it has another connection with others new forms of marketing, for example

buzzmarketing or word of mouth marketing (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012).

2.3.4 Guerilla marketing plan and strategy

Successful marketing plan should be well arranged, not too much burdened by scientist axioms,

and it should be short. “Marketing plan has to fit into a beer mat.” (Patalas, 2009)

In Table 1 there is an example of Guerilla marketing plan.

Table 1: Marketing plan

March Target group Measure Public

relations

Expenditures

Adverting City newsletter General Advertisement, 2 columns, 100

mm, pg.5

112 EUR

Public discussion/

Theme

“Traffic jam –

what to do?”

Drivers – beginners,

interested party

Favorite restaurant, referents,

police, advocate

Others measure Concept -

Personal incomes.

Families, 2 children,

father employed

Powerpoint presentation, direct

mail, city newsletter, phoning

Local lobbing

Marketing – social,

cultural actions

Carnival parade –

Sunday.

General Regional

addresses

Marketing –

consultancy

Total expenditure 112 EUR

SOURCE: T. Patalas 2009.

Careful planning increases a chance to be successful. Strategy, which is given, comprises a

complex of firmed instructions that have to be followed during realization of all following

Guerilla measures (Patalas, 2009). 

21

Strategic planning of Guerilla measures (Patalas, 2009):

 An area of products that should be used.

 A required market segment – a target group of consumers.

 Contribution for targeted consumers.

 An offensive strategy against competitors.

 Needed financial sources.

Guerilla marketers create their strategies by using of seven easy sentences: (1) Target of

marketing – what should consumer do (to visit websites…), (2) How to achieve the target, (3)

Specify target market, (4) Define that marketing weapons will be used, (5) Determination of

position and what is represented, (6) An identity of company, (7) Budget (Levinson, 2011).

Most of marketing plans, especially the short ones, give very easy impression (Levinson, 2011).

2.3.5 Message of Guerilla campaign

Original and quick shocking action of Guerilla campaign as such can help to gain an attention of

consumers. However, successful Guerilla campaign has to go much further than that. The target

is not only restricting expenditure. Successful Guerilla campaign has to have a message that is

presented to consumers (Patalas, 2009).

The message should meet the following criteria (Patalas, 2009):

 A messenger is your company.

 To inform about concrete benefits.

 To be understandable.

 To be funny.

 To have direct connection with your offer of product or service.

 To respect ethical, cultural and religious values.

 To be relevant to performance possibilities of your company.

 To be suitable to your target group.

 To be credible. 

22

2.3.6 Guerilla marketing instruments

What are Guerilla instruments exactly? In this chapter I will mention some positive examples of

guerilla marketing instrument that have been tested in practice and had a positive response from

consumer.

The examples mentioned use information from a manifesto by Jay Conrad Levinson. The

mentioned instruments are examples of over 90 field-tested tactics to get your business into the

frontlines (Levinson, 2004).

− Make customer Birthday card

− A sticky success story

− Beach party Bingo

− Marketing to the disabled

− Free domain name registration

− Add memos to your marketing

− Ask and you shell receive

− Credits not coupons

− Free test marketing

− Guerilla Greetings

− Use a funny pitch

− Ask for a few seconds etc.

2.3.7 Types of guerilla marketing

There exist many types of guerilla marketing in the marketing world. As examples it is possible

to mention following types (Bopanna, n.d.):

 Ambient marketing

 Presence marketing

 Grassroots marketing

 Wild postings

 Undercover/ Buzz marketing 

23

 Alternative marketing

 Experiential marketing

 Interactive marketing

 Viral marketing

2.3.8 Differences between traditional and guerilla marketing

Differences between traditional and guerilla marketing are mentioned in table 2.

Table 2: Traditional versus guerilla marketing

Traditional marketing Guerilla marketing

Use of capital Use of imagination

Big budgets Small budgets

Logo Meme

“What will we get?” “What can we give?”

To sell is a target Target is to build long-term relationship

Monolog Dialog

Finishes after deal Starts after the deal

SOURCE: L. Bopanna, n.d.

2.3.9 Existing tips, suggestions and ideas in guerilla marketing

„Correctly we can see only by our heart. The important things are invisible to our eyes.“

Antonie de Saint – Exupéry.

The quote explains an influence of emotions on our mind and behavior. This is what Guerilla

does to our thinking. We can see or hear something, what is unusually, maybe something,

what make us crazy, something what shock us. After that people think about the experience,

and the thinking changes our meaning and our habits. On following pictures are displayed

emotions, which will lead us to think about the great honey product. Usually the pictures are

followed by a comment or information.

Figure 8 informs consumers about the fact that before 100 years people ate only their own

products, everything was organic. The message and picture should motivate people to find

their own beekeeper. They should think about their health and feel an atmosphere of fresh 

24

product that is served to them. They should notice of hard work of beekeeper and realize how

important his work is.

Figure 8: Breathing of history. Information that inform consumers about a need to consume organic food as honey is.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

Another example of guerilla instrument are postcards or little cards with a joke that beekeeper

can present his customers by. Bees are known as hard working and busy insect, figure 9 and 10

show their daily routine in funny form.

Figure 9+10: Funny busy bees.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

Ten years ago beekeeping was on the downgrade. With coming of higher awareness of

beekeeping and via guerilla marketing that is able to gain hearts of people via emotional

influence; people are now more interested and they wish to look after bees. Figures 11, 12, 13

shows actual situation in beekeeping. Cards with mentioned comment can trigger new 

25

behavior of consumers. The cards demonstrate the fact that bees face to illnesses and they

need to it is taken care of them.

With the growing of beekeeping branch, it is expectable that also demand of bees and

products from bees will grow too.

Figure 11, 12, 13: Please, vote bees. Please, save bees. – Actual situation in beekeeping.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

An imagination and fantasy of a guerilla marketer has no limits. He can attract consumers and

offer a birthday basket with honey products (Figure 14). He can invite people for a weekend

activity – he can distribute flayers with information about weekend activity or about a market that

will be realized in neighboring town (figure 15, 16).

Guerilla marketer can create Christmas cards with a motive of bee and wish Merry Christmas in

non traditional form (figure 17).

Figure 14: Guerilla honey present. Figure 15: Invitation for an activity at weekend.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018. 

26

Figure 16: Invitation for a market. Figure 17: Merry Christmas postcard.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

Guerilla marketers usually can recognise an opportunity to educate people and promote and

propagate information about bees that relate to healthy of bees and environmental.

Figure 18 - 21 show beauty from nature from early spring, when first bees are looking for first

nectar.

Figure 18, 19, 20, 21: Beauty from nature. Healthy bees, healthy environmental.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

In a chapter above I was writing about an activity for children. One of the activities could be

doing surrounding of bee farm more attractive. On figures 22, 23, 24 are examples of interesting

elements that dominate in the bee farm. It is a positive contribution for eyes of consumers. They

will feel nice and bewitched by attractiveness of visited place.

Figure 22: Game and play. A stone colored by children. Figure 23: Animals – an important part of surrounding of bee farm.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018. 

27

Figure 24: Painted hives are attractive not only for children.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

Photos from daily work are necessary part of beekeeper´s diary. Guerilla beekeeper can also

decorate his house by his own pictures. Figure 25, 26, 27 show dangerous that lurks everywhere.

Figure 25, 26, 27: Warning, dangerous, sting – pictures from daily work are curious and can trigger an emotion of fear.

 

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

All pictures with a comment above are suitable to be used as a guerilla instruments in

advertising. Every picture has something special or curious, it is interesting by an idea – for

example painted stones placed around hives, it attracts consumer’s eyes, it is original and it

can induce a desire of consumer to be a part of the company. The easiest way that a consumer

can do is to by a honey product of honey. An active guerilla beekeeper can offer to his

customers to paint his own stone. People usually like similar type of entertainment;

sometimes they can feel an importance to be involved in a branch that is familiar with nature

and healthy. In this time healthy life style is promoted. 

28

Consumers can be appealed by beauty. They can receive an email with beautiful picture that

influence their thinking. If they receive similar email more times, they will feel that there is

somebody, who takes care about them, who is interested about their needs and who can offer

the correct product that they require. It never mind that they did not know about the fact that

they need the product before the time, when the emails started.

Creativity is welcomed. Beekeepers can offer baskets of honey products that will attract new

customers. Most of people like invitations for thematic actions, weekend activities and so on.

Everybody is pleasant if he receives a wish on his birthday.

Also shocking, dangerous pictures are welcomed. Guerilla beekeepers can provide actual

information about a need to help bees to his consumers. The minimum, what can reader do is

to read the article and share gained information with his surroundings. This type of

communication with consumers can start viral marketing well.

 Every type of mentioned communication can trigger expected emotions and influence

consumers´ behavior. A Beekeeper can use pictures and mark his glasses with honey or add a

little card to his customer. It is possible to combine it with mentioned Guerilla instruments

above. Motto: „It is crazy easy!“

3 CUSTOMER´S DECISIONS AND BEHAVIOUR

The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customer´s needs and wants better than

competitors (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

In the past marketers had all necessary information about consumers behavior and needs, because

they were in daily contact with them. Because of big expansion of markets, daily meeting were

stopped and nowadays marketers have to collect information to better understand their customers.

3.1 What influences consumer behavior?

Marketers invest many energy and exertion to clarify relations between stimuli of market and

marketers reaction. Their start point is a model “stimuli-reaction” that is represented in figure 28

(Kotler & Keller, 2012).

The model display marketing and the other stimuli that have influence on customer decision and

behavior. The stimuli enter into consumer “black box” and create reactions. 

29

The stimuli are differentiate into two groups – market stimuli (4P) and macro-environment. All

these stimuli go through consumer “black box” and have an influence on consumer´s purchase

decision. The term black box means processes that are elaborated in mind of each person. It is

thinking and meaning of every individual. There are processed external influences (stimuli). On

basic of the processes there is some reaction appeared and a purchase decision will arise.

Figure 28: Model of consumer behaviour.

SOURCE: P. Kotler, K. L. Keller 2012.

Effect of Guerilla campaign is external stimuli that enter into consumer “black box” and have an

impact on his purchase decision in future.

Figure 29 displays behavior of consumer as a reaction to marketing in general. It displays

behavior that is reinforced and strengthens the bond between stimuli and reaction. If a consumer

buys a product in response to an ad and experiences a positive outcome, the likelihood that the

consumer will use this product increases. If the outcome is not favorable, the likelihood of buying

the product again decreases (Belch & Belch, 2011). According to the fact, also good guerilla

marketing is able to approach consumer, because guerilla marketing is typical by shocking form

of advertising and this has an increasingly potential to approach consumer. The consumer, who is

positive motivated by guerilla marketing, will buy the offered product and his reaction on the

product can be positive or negative. If his reaction is positive, there is high possibility of next

business. A guerilla marketer should be able to communicate with the positive motivated client

and give him more stimuli for next purchase via guerilla marketing instruments. 

30

Figure 29: Instrumental conditioning in marketing.

SOURCE: Belch & Belch, 2011.

3.2 The main factor influencing consumer decision

All consumer decisions depend on his cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. These

factors cannot be controlled by marketer. However the marketer should account with the factors

during his campaign (Kotler & Keller, 2012) Mentioned factors are displayed on figure 30.

Figure 30: Detailed model of Consumer´s behavior

SOURCE: P. Kotler & K. L. Keller 2012.

Despite the fact that marketer can not control these factors, he/ she can be familiar with that when

he/ she build his guerilla campaign. If the marketer knows factors that influence his customers, he

is able to build such campaign that will have the biggest influence and effect on his consumers. It

is important to guerilla marketer knows his customers and their thinking and meaning.

The mentioned factors can be described as bellow:

a) Cultural factors 

31

Cultural factors help individuals assign meaning to the world that surrounds them (Luna & Gupta,

2001).

The central question is “Who am I?” and in what terms people describe themselves and others—

their personality traits and identity. On figure 31 there are structured the cultural components of

the person in terms of consumer attributes and processes, and the cultural components of

behavior in terms of consumer behavior domains (Mooij & Hofstede, 2011). It is important to

understand how people think, perceive, and what motivates them.

Figure 31: Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior Framework.

SOURCE: M. de Mooij & G. Hofstede 2011.

b) Social factors

Each of us often participates in many groups – family, clubs, and organizations. Groups often are

an important source of information and help to define norms for behavior (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

Marketers respond to these differences through the positioning of their product and services, the

media strategies they use to reach different social classes, and the types advertising appeals they

develop (Belch & Belch, 2011).

c) Personal factors

Consumer´s decision also depends on his personal factors. It is possible to differentiate following

personal factors: age, period of life cycle, occupation, economic conditions life style, personality

etc. Guerilla marketers can consider critical life events or transitions – marriage, childbirth, 

32

illness, relocation, divorce, first job, career change, retirement, and death of a spouse – as giving

rise to new needs (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

d) Psychological factors

Psychological factors take into account influence of various psychological concepts, such as

motivation, perception, attitudes, and integration processes (Figure 32) (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

Figure 32: A basic model of consumer decision making.

SOURCE: P. Kotler & K. L. Keller 2012.

3.3 Comparison of traditional marketing and guerilla marketing

Phases of consumer’s motivation are different. One of the most popular approaches to understand

consumer motivations is based on the classic theory of human motivation popularized many years

ago by psychologist Abraham Maslow. We can see his hierarchy of consumer´s needs on Figure

33.

By physiological aspects we can understand the basic level of primary needs for things required

to sustain life, such as food, shelter, clothing etc.; As safety aspects we understand the need for

security and safety from physical harm; By social/love and belonging aspects we understand the

desire to have satisfying relationships with others and feel a sense of love, affection, belonging,

and acceptance; Esteem aspects are known as the need to feel a sense of accomplishment and

gain recognition, status, and respect from others; and last self-actualization aspect is the need for

self-fulfillment and a desire to realize one’s own potential.

Usually, we follow higher aspects after we meet/ pass the lower aspects. 

33

Figure 33: Maslow´s hierarchy of needs.

SOURCE: P. Kotler & K. L. Keller 2012.

Another way of understanding consumer´s decisions is through Psychoanalytic theory.

Psychoanalytic theory is invented by Sigmund Freud and works with the structure and

development of personality.

Sigmund Freud assumed the psychological forces shaping people´s behavior are largely

unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations (Kotler &

Keller, 2012).

Marketing per Skinner tells us that consumers usually change their behavior. The marketing

urges marketers to present or do something, what cause any change of consumer’s behavior – to

buy, to click on the link, to call, to visit a seller, to cut a coupon etc. (Levinson, 2011).

Marketing per Freud works with consumer´s subconscious – the most powerful part of people

mind. Marketing per Skinner works with consumer´s consciousness – not so powerful, but more

influence able (Levinson, 2011).

Guerilla marketing works with subconscious and consciousness together. Guerilla marketing

changes attitudes and influence consumer behavior. It has an effect from every side (Levinson,

2011). 

34

3.4 Influence of guerilla marketing on consumer decision

Success of guerilla marketing in on its aiming at personal sale, personal letters, telemarketing,

circulars and brochures, ads on bulletin boards, section ads, external advertising, billboards,

yellow pages, newspapers and magazines, radio and television, mail offers, promotional

peculiarities like emblazoned pens, free samples, seminars and promotions, sponsor relationship,

exhibitions and fairs, t-shirts with a company logo, public relations, and word-of-mouth

advertising (Nawaz, et al. 2014).

Guerrilla advertising is interested in observing its effect on consumer buying behavior. Sub

variables of guerrilla advertising are (Nawaz, et al. 2014):

• Marketing activities • Annoyance

• Promotional activities • Low budget ads

• Man vs. information • Ads

Power of guerilla marketing is in its creativity and credibility. Creative advertising is more

memorable, it can literally stick in consumer´s mind (memory), it works with only a low budget

and it can be spread faster (Reinartz & Saffert, 2013).

There has been discovered that creative messages gain more attention and lead to positive

attitudes about products being promoted in laboratory experiments. However, there is no

evidence that the message influences consumer behavior (Reinartz & Saffert, 2013).

Reinartz and Saffert (2013) also conducted research on whether creative advertisements influence

consumer behavior and attitude. The results indicated that money invested in a highly creative

advertisement had nearly double the sales impact than money spent on a non creative campaign

(Jankovska, 2015).

Brand credibility is defined as the believability of the information conveyed by a brand, which

requires consumers to perceive that the brand has the ability and willingness to continuously

deliver what has been promised (Tulin & Swait, 2004). 

35

Customer always wants something different and something creative and this need is fulfilled by

guerrilla marketing. Once the customer is satisfied they show loyalty and buying the same

product frequently (Iqbal, 2015).

Guerilla marketing builds on trust. Trust has a great influence on customer loyalty as it is the

fundamental part of any business. Businesses make strong relationships with their loyal

customers. Secondly customer satisfaction is also an important aspect which is considered as a

major determinant of customer loyalty. Trust and satisfaction increase the customer demand to

buy the product again and again (Iqbal, 2015).

A guerrilla marketer ought to be creative and to develop unconventional methods of promotion.

He/she must make use of all his/her connections, professional as well as personal, and he/she has

to explore his/her company and products in order to find the sources of publicity (Fleming, n.d.).

In order to succeed, it is imperative to present a quality product.

Buying behavior is psychological in nature since it involves a reaction to something that would

satisfy one’s wants and needs (Fleming, n.d.). As shown in the figure 34, buying behavior has

six stages: (1) Need Identification; (2) Product Brokering; (3) Merchant Brokering; and (4)

Negotiation – these are the agent-mediated where guerrilla marketers can take advantage of in

convincing consumers to buy their products. (5) Purchase and delivery; (6) Service and

evaluation are analyzed by companies such as Coca-cola. Coca-cola analyze buying behavior in

order to predict consumers’ responses to marketing strategies, to design a marketing mix ideal for

the product concerned, and to measure the success of the company in pursuing a marketing

strategy (Ross & Harradine, 2010).

Figure 34: Stages of buying behavior.

Stages of buying behavior

• Need identification

• Product brokering

• Merchant brokering

• Negotiation

• Purchase and delivery

• Service and evaluation

SOURCE: Fleming, n.d.

Agent - mediated

36

The world that divides effectiveness and efficiency is the world of the guerrilla marketers. They

are presumed to be knowledgeable about the 80/20 rule or pareto principle that moves the inquiry

as to which 20% of the marketing strategy generates 80% of the sales (Fleming, n.d.).

For example, according to Levinson (2013), the 80/20 rule teaches simplicity and applies to more

of marketers business than marketing and more of marketers life than business:

• 80 percent of what is achieved at work comes from 20 percent of the time spent working.

• 20 percent of a company’s products usually account for 80 percent of its sales.

• And 20 percent of its employees contribute to 80 percent of profits.

• 20 percent of criminals account for 80 percent of crimes.

• 20 percent of motorists cause 80 percent of accidents.

• 20 percent of your carpets get 80 percent of the wear.

• 20 percent of your clothes will be worn 80 percent of the time.

• 80 percent of traffic jams occur on 20 percent of the roads.

• 20 percent of computer users purchase 80 percent of software (Fleming, n.d.)

The quantitative research per (Hollensen, 2011) takes interest in verifying significant correlation

between consumer perception and guerrilla marketing (Hollensen, 2011). The hypothesis of the

research is following: Guerilla marketing has significant effect on consumer buying behavior.

The research uses the regression model statistical instrument in analyzing the results of the

questionnaire or survey. It pertains to the trust, worthiness and the attractiveness, which the

participants perceive on celebrity marketing as an example of guerrilla marketing and as the

dependent co-efficient with that of celebrity marketing as an example of guerrilla marketing and

as the independent co-efficient (Fleming, n.d.). According the numeral results of the research it is

hereby confirmed that any type of guerrilla marketing techniques can have a substantial influence

on consumer buying behavior. It is important to note that guerrilla marketing is important in

retailing distribution (Fleming, n.d.).

3.5 Purchase decision

The consumer must stop searching for and evaluating information about alternative brands in the

evoked set and makes a purchase decision (Belch & Belch, 2011). 

37

A purchase decision is not the same as an actual purchase. Once a consumer chooses which brand

to buy, he or she must still implement the decision and make an actual purchase (Belch & Belch,

2011). Consumers usually choose when to buy, where to buy, how much money to spend. It is

important to understand that continuous communication between guerilla marketer and consumer

is required to keep strong bond. Than business earn much money and consumer is successful with

his product or service.

4 PRACTICAL PART

In the practical part of the thesis will be described used methodology, researched subject will be

described, the author will mention approaches of gathering information, explain a way how she

analyzed data, there will be results and recommendation mentioned.

4.1 METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH

The research was done for monitored area – a village Nekoř- and also for Czech Republic.

Per followed instruction the plan of the research marketing project primarily specify: (table 3)

Table 3: Plan of the research.

Research questions.

1. Can guerilla marketing influence consumer decision making in purchasing honey?

2. What are the ways for small local honey business to apply guerilla marketing and influence consumer emotions?

Types of information, which will be gathered.

1. Primary data.

2. Secondary data.

A way of their collection.

1. Primary research – interview + observing of consumer´s buying habits. Information from a beekeeper.

2. Secondary research – data from the Internet – Czech statistical office, Czech beekeepers association. Data from

Facebook, websites from other beekeepers, magazines, books.

Research methods.

SWOT analyze, interviewing, observation, comparison, analyzing and available information technology.

The SWOT analysis introduces a system into marketing and it is useful first step to map all factors and organize ideas of a

marketer. The SWOT analysis can help to find a strategy that will help to earn money in future. It describes power of a

beekeeping organization and shows opportunities that will help to earn money. It is a suitable instrument to assess work of

the organization as a complex and it will help to build own guerilla marketing plan. Benefit of SWOT analysis as an

instrument that should help to find answers on researched questions (especially question 1) is its simplicity. It can help to

find existing problems or new possibilities to influence consumer´s habits. It is recommended as an additional part of guerilla

marketing plan. 

38

Defining of the tasks.

The information will be collected, summarized and analyzed by an author of the bachelor thesis according a timetable.

Elaboration of a timetable of activities.

The timetable of activities will be elaborated by an author of the bachelor thesis.

SOURCE: T. Patalas 2009.

Information will be collected by an author in cooperation with a beekeeper and citizens. All

information will be elaborated, summarized, analyzed and presented by an author per a

timetable/ schedule of activities: (Table 4)

Table 4: Timetable.

A schedule of activities

Week

41

Week

42

Week

43

Week

44

Week

45

Week

46

Week

06/2017

Week

07/2017

Week 22-

23/2017

Definition

assignment

Knap. Knap. Knap.

Tentative analyze Knap. Knap. Knap.

Project plan Knap. Knap. Knap.

Pilot study Knap.

Dates connection Knap. Knap. Knap.

Dates elaboration Knap. Knap. Knap.

Dates analyze Knap. Knap.

Final report Knap.

Final

presentation

 Knap.

SOURCE: T. Patalas 2009.

For purpose of the bachelor thesis was chosen qualitative research methodology.

Qualitative research is a multipurpose method involving interpretive and natural approach to the

subject of the research. This means that research using qualitative methods studies things in their

natural environment and attempts to understand or interpret the phenomenon in the way people

submit it. Qualitative research includes the use of studies and a diverse series of empirical

materials, case studies, personal experiences, introspective, life history, interviews, observational,

historical, interactional and visual texts that describe routine and problematic moments and

meanings in an individual's life (SeminarkyZa1, 2015). 

39

A quantitative approach is usually strictly structured, collects statistical data and tests hypotheses,

while a qualitative approach is more flexible, exploring views by analyzing texts and words, and

developing new theoretical insights (SeminarkyZa1, 2015).

For the purpose of qualitative or quantitative observation, Dr. Miroslav Disman expressed the

following: Understand this is the task of qualitative research. Quantitative research is only a

brutal and primitive tool for hypothesis testing (Disman, 2002).

The results of qualitative research can not be generalized to the entire population. However, in

assessing the consumption of honey, it is neither desirable to deal with the population as a whole.

Instead, we need to understand the needs and situation of a particular segment of the population

that is most interested in purchasing honey or who is already buying it (Barker, 1999).

The most commonly used methods of qualitative research are following:

 in-depth interview, life history

 interview with informants

 focus groups

 direct observation

 role playing and narrative research (Barker, 1999)

In the bachelor thesis will be used in-depth interview, life history, interview with informants and

direct observation methods.

The in-depth interview usually takes 2-3 hours and follows following rules:

 It emphasizes the type of questions “how come?”, “what do you think about?”, “why do

you think it?”.

 The plan of interview should be used flexible.

 An interviewer should control his reaction on answers of researched person.

 An interviewer should ask for a permit to record the interview.

 An interviewer should work with silence as a means of stimulation of researched person.

etc. (Barker, 1999). 

40

Observation is a technique for collecting information based on focused, systematic and organized

monitoring of aspects, phenomena that are being investigated (Reichel, 2009).

There are two kinds of observation: direct observations (sensory - most often observation through

primary visual and auditory sensations) and indirect observations (mediated – e.g. through a

microscope, questionnaire or video recording). Mostly there is not monitored the phenomenon,

but its indicators, except for behavioral studies (Holý, n.d.). In the bachelor thesis was used

method of direct observations.

Qualitative research builds on induction: begins without hypotheses, searching for regularities

that perhaps exist in objective reality, then describes them in the form of preliminary conclusions,

verifies with further observation and the output is a new theory (Holý, n.d.).

The interview is a research and diagnostic technique that involves questioning. Types of

interview are: 1) one to one; 2) group; 3) situational; 4) telephone (McIntosh, 2014). Before the

interview starts, interviewer explains the general theme of the research. This technique requires

that the interviewer guides the interviewee towards the descriptive verbalization of the lived

experience of the action, which is closely linked to the other dimensions of lived experience,

namely emotions, senses and thoughts (Skinner, 2012).

4.2 ABOUT THE SUBJECT

As I am interested in Honey business and healthy life style, also in ecology, I decided to

cooperate with a man from a village, where I currently live. The name of the man is Mr. Bednář

and he is a beekeeper. We decided to arrange the best possible ways of communication to

consumers have needed and correct information about the honey products.

During my research I found out that honey is better for our kitchens and also for our stomachs

and minds than sugar or other unhealthy sweets. Bee products help. It helps with urticaria and

inflammation of the urinary tract and dampens the symptoms of menopause (iREGIONY, 2017).

Honey is natural product that consists many of vitamins, minerals and enzymes.

I would like to recommend the information to a beekeeper, which is able to work in the business,

and translate the information to consumers by using Guerilla marketing strategy and Guerilla

marketing instruments, to they decide themselves, that honey is the best way for them and their 

41

children, also for our planet. Also to highlight the fact, that if we want to follow my ideas, it is

important to buy and eat just only clean – ecological – honey without antibiotics and more

pollutants.

All of the mentioned information I would like to display in the Guerilla advertising. These should

be the shocks needed for buyers/ consumers to decide to buy the product.

Basic values that determine activities of a beekeeper Mr. Bednář are summed up in free main

goals: a) Delight your customers; b) Fight for profits; c) Enjoy your work. The values were

discussed during a in-depth interview.

Mr. Bednář is a beekeeper, who supplies honey products, bee products and services that

contribute to well-being and comfort of his customers. In order to that he follows a motto

„Comfort thanks to a Beekeeper“ in his daily work (figure 35).

Figure 35: Comfort Thanks to Beekeeper – schema.

SOURCE: Author.

The analyzed project is elaborated for a little beekeeper, which lives in Nekoř Village. The

village is on the border of Podorlické downs and Orlické Mountains. District area is Ústí nad

Orlicí. Nekoř is about 8 km southeast of the city Žamberk. In 2006 there were 897 inhabitants. 

42

In Nekoř there are five beekeepers and all of them have a lot of customers. Per Mr. Bednář it is

not his goal to gain new customers, because he does not have enough honey. Figure 36 shows

actual bee colony of Mr. Bednář. There is Mr. Bednář in action in the figure 37.

 Figure 36: Hives. Figure 37: Mr. Bednář, a beekeeper.

 

SOURCE: Author.

Following table 5 displays honey Yield in last five years. The reader can notice low yield of

honey in 2014. It was caused by illness and the death of bees.

Table 5: Avarage of honey in last years.

AVARAGE OF HONEY FOR ONE HIVE

Year kg

2012 22,6

2013 33,7

2014 15,5

2015 40,5

2016 23,4

SOURCE: Author, according to a beekeepers diary.

4.2.1 Equipment of a beekeeper

A beekeeper Mr. Bednář owns nine bee boxes, houses of bees – hives. Each one of the hives is a

special bee colony, also called a hive. Numerically each hive can accommodate about 50 – 1000

bees, and of course, each one hive has a mother or a queen, which is marked by a special color

every year per instruction from beekeepers association.

The basic equipment of every beekeeper includes: 

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• Hives – for buying hives is able to use subsidies per government regulative nr. 197/2005

Sb. as amended.

• Honey extraction – per experiences it is better to buy a new one.

• Protective equipment – pupa, hat, beekeeping gloves.

• Small aids – smoke instrument, beekeeping spacer etc.

• Hive/ Swarm

It is possible to gain a financial support from different public sources for buying technical

equipment in the start of the business. Beginners can use subsidies from a Regional office another

type of subsidies are subsidies from European Union.

Every beekeeper beginner should consider if he has good conditions for beekeeping – mainly

hive station with easy accessibility, friendly neighbors. It is suitable to be a member of Czech

beekeepers association.

4.2.2 Bee products

The basic bee products are honey, bee wax, propolis, pollen, royal jelly and bee´s poison.

Bee honey is the best known and the most important bee product.

Beekeepers difference blossom honey and honeydew honey.

If we talk about blossom honey, we speak about first honey, which is usually consumed in May

or June. The favorite flowers are: rape, acacia, raspberry, buckwheat, heather, clover, sunflower,

linden. The favorite flowers are displayed of figure 38.

Second type of honey is consumed in autumn and is called honeydew honey. He has darker color

and is characterized by slowly crystallization.

It is suitable to stock honey in about 15˚C in a dark room; air hominid should be about 60 %. 

44

Figure 38: Prefered flowers – rape, buckwheat, dogwood, Buckthorn, bluebell, borage, acacia, maple, willowherb, heather,

roses. Measurement of nectargiving.

SOURCE: VESELÝ, 2007.

4.2.3 Marketing and business perspective of beekeeping

 During my research I did not find any example of guerilla marketing in honey business in Czech

Republic. The product is normally advertised as a banner in the Internet, some beekeepers use

web sites for advertising of honey and honey products and some beekeepers use Facebook. They

usually offer honey as a product from bees and do not use any special guerilla marketing

instruments.

Most of beekeepers use little advertises in a form of sign or guidepost placed near a road that

shows direction on a place, where is honey available to buy. This notice was gained by a method

of observation and it was also confirmed by consumers, who I was doing an interview with. The

signs usually have not any special idea or point, usually there is mentioned “Honey”.

There is an example of guerilla marketing in beekeeping organization in California, that uses

instruments and ideas of guerilla marketing (Facebook, 2018).

According an interview with a student of secondary school in Žlutice na Karlovarsku we should

have our own beekeeper as we have a doctor (Kalců, 2016). In this time beekeeping is arising as

a hobby and also as a study branch. 

45

Albert Einstein said: „If bees die out, population has just only four years of living. Till two years

population has nothing to sow“.

An importance of honey business is noticeable. It is an area that has important utilization in our

lives. The honey product and its eating is very contributive for our health. These are information

that should be shared and that can find a place in guerilla marketing.

Because honey business is not too much advertised product, it should be advantage and challenge

for guerilla marketing. Beekeepers can come with new ideas and create interesting and

contributive form of advertising via honey guerilla marketing. Honey is common product in

supermarkets and the supermarkets sometimes place an add in the TV and inform consumers

about better price of the product. They do not offer any information about quality and advantages

of consumption of honey. Figure 39, 40 and 41 show common types of advertising of honey on

banners in the Internet.

Figure 39 + 40: Advertising of honey in the Internet. “Medík - Eat honey. I am full of honey.”

SOURCE: Medvidek-medik.cz, 2018.

Figure 41: Advertisement of Czech honey in the Internet.

SOURCE: Medokomerc 2018. 

46

Another bee product as candles from bee wax or bee poison are not advertised too. Usually

beekeepers mention these products on their websites with a picture of the product and a price

(Figure 42).

Figure 42: Examples of advertising bee products – pictures from websites, e-shop.

SOURCE: VšeProVčelaře 2018

What is surprising is the fact that there is missing advertising of honey product in TV and radio.

The biggest mass media are not used for advertising and informing consumers about quality of

the product. Mostly the Internet is used. One of the issues I'm concerned with is, why there is

more information and advertising on the Internet than in other mass media. The reason may be

the fact that the Internet is cheaper than marketing in, for example, television or radio. Creative

areas, such as promoting honey business on the street, are an unexplored area. This area requires

activity, creative thinking, creativity, and high engagement of marketer. Experienced marketers

should consider their options, because with coming of something new they can get wide

audience.

There are not advertising articles in newspapers and magazines that I had checked and I haven´t

any positive information from people that I was interviewing.

As I summarize mentioned facts, I can see a big potential of using guerilla marketing to promote

honey business in Czech Republic.

Available marketing literature aimed at honey recommends (Ochterski, 2014): 1) Encourage your

customers to refer people or provide them a sampler to share with their friends; 2) Suggest gift

packages from your apiary for special occasions; 3) Share your goals for developing with your 

47

loyal customers, and ask for their suggestions; 4) Promote honey using a simple newsletter, an email update, or social media approach.

During my research arise an idea to build a honey shop, something like wine bar or wine shop.

There should be a shop assistant, who teaches people how to use it up. Transform honey from a

commodity into a luscious ingredient, something that is able to add to a meal to improve it. I was

surprised when I visited a restaurant called Honey bar and they sold only typical drinks like many

bars and restaurants in surrounding.

Australian beekeepers came with a new invention Flow hive that helps to gain honey direct from

a hive to a glass. Publishing of the invention in the Internet caused big boom in honey business

and earned millions USD (Český svaz včelařů, 2017). The invention attracted many new

beekeepers. It is what honey business needs to grow. People have to see and hear about

beekeeping than the branch can grow.

4.2.4 Beekeeping in Czech Republic

Czech Republic is one of the biggest beekeeping areas in the world. There are about 50.000

beekeepers. A beekeeper can be anyone, who lives in the area of Czech Republic and will

correctly follow instruction, which are well described on the web sites of Czech beekeepers

association (Český svaz včelařů, 2018).

A beekeeper beginner can use various subsidies, which are provided by regional offices. The

subsidies are different for various regions. It is suitable to inform yourself in the Internet or in the

department for ecology and environment.

Second type of subsidies is a possibility to use a subsidy according a program of European Union

for making conditions for gaining and sales of beekeepers products easier. Another interesting

kind of subsidies is help with acquisition of technical equipment. It can be used in a case of

buying of new equipment or in a case of innovation.

 

48

4.2.5Rules and legislation in beekeeping in EU

Important information about changes in subsidies from European Union from 2017 is to trace on

websites. Fond provides subsidies in accordance with 256/2000 Sb. (Státní zemědělský

intervenční fond, 2016)

The beekeeping year starts on 1st of September and finishes on 31st of August. Besides

administrative information there are mentioned also information about fighting against varroasa,

information about technical equipment etc.

Complete list of needed information is available on websites of Český svaz včelařů, z. s. – on

mentioned websites are for example following information and documents: Manual for bee

breeder; Requirement for provision of subsidy on technical measure; Requirement for arranging

of education action etc. (Český svaz včelařů, 2018).

Beekeeping subsidies received in 2016 were 151 CZK per a hive. In the year Mr. Bednář

received 1.359 CZK. He paid 200 CZK as a membership fee and 9 x 16 CZK, it is 144 CZK. Half

of 144 CZK is used for a fund to cover uncaused damages. He paid also 270 CZK for treatment.

Than his subsidies in 2016 were 745 CZK.

4.2.6 Eating and buying of honey in research area

I performed a primary research in the village area. I did interviewing with 30 people, who are or

should be customers of beekeeper Mr. Bednář. We were speaking about their relationship to

honey. I asked people if they buy honey, who is their supplier of honey, how often they buy

honey and what is the reason, why they buy honey.

People usually buy honey from a freeholder. They do not buy honey in supermarket, because they

believe quality of the product from freeholder and freeholders usually sell cheaper product. (Per

my research, honey in supermarket is twice expensive than honey from freeholder.) People

mostly prefer a taste and quality before price and design of the product.

In average, people eat about three liters of honey per a person and year. People are not interested

in honey advertising or are not informed about honey from television, radio and the Internet.

They are good informed about healthy life style. 30 % of questioned people use Facebook as 

49

communication tool. All interviewed people live healthy life style, go to nature often, they are

active in work and in environmental.

4.2.7 Eating and buying of honey in Czech republic

Per a consumer basket mentioned on the web sides of Czech statistical office, consumers invest

about 0, 84˚˚ their money to bee honey consumption. It is about 6,7 % of their money invested to

a category 01.18 – Sugar, jam, honey, chocolate, sweets and another confectionery products.

(Details in Table 6.)

Table 6: Consumption of honey in Czech Republic.

01.18 Cukr, marmeláda, med, čokoláda, cukrovinky

a cukrářské výrobky

12,495493

01.181 MARMELÁDY, DŽEMY 0,326111

01.181.01 JAHODOVÝ DŽEM 1 kg 0,326111

01.182 CUKR 2,280446

01.182.01 CUKR KRYSTALOVÝ 1 kg 1,705486

01.182.02 CUKR MOUČKOVÝ 1 kg 0,574960

01.183 ČOKOLÁDA A ČOKOLÁDOVÉ

VÝROBKY

4,663569

01.183.01 ČOKOLÁDA MLÉČNÁ

TABULKOVÁ

100 g 2,014065

01.183.02 ČOKOLÁDOVÝ

DEZERT

250 g 1,027715

01.183.03 ČOKOLÁDOVÁ

TYČINKA PLNĚNÁ

100 g 1,273350

01.183.05 DIA ČOKOLÁDA 100 g 0,348439

01.184 CUKROVINKY NEČOKOLÁDOVÉ 2,256528

01.184.01 KYSELÝ OVOCNÝ

DROPS

100 g 0,491036

01.184.02 ŽELATINOVÉ

CUKROVINKY

100 g 1,069865

01.184.03 ŽVÝKACÍ GUMA 1 bal. 0,695627

01.185 CUKRÁŘSKÉ VÝROBKY 2,124683

01.185.01 ŽLOUTKOVÝ

VĚNEČEK

10 ks 1,686223

01.185.03 OVOCNÁ ZMRZLINA

PRŮMYSLOVĚ

VYRÁBĚNÁ

1 l 0,438460

01.186 MED, OVOCNÉ CUKRY, UMĚLÁ

SLADIDLA

0,844156

01.186.01 PRAVÝ VČELÍ MED 1 kg 0,844156

SOURCE: ČSÚ 2016.

4.3 DATA COLLECTION

There are two major approaches of gathering information – primary research and secondary

research. In the thesis will be used both - primary research and secondary research. As for

example (Patalas, 2009) mentions, primary research includes interview and observing. For the

thesis there were both methods applied. There were interview with a beekeeper and interview 

50

with consumers done. In cooperation with a beekeeper a method of observing of consumers´

buying habits was collected and analyzed.

Secondary research was aimed at collection of data from the Internet – Czech statistical office,

Czech beekeepers association. Data from Facebook, websites from other beekeepers, magazines,

books were collected.

In March 2017 was an in-depth interview with a beekeeper Mr. Bednář made. I asked questions

that related with beekeeping area, for example how long has been beekeeper done beekeeping,

why did he choose the branch, what are advantages from the branch for him etc. I also asked

questions that related with dealing and communication with customers – what are beekeepers´

ways how to interest or gain new customers, how does he communicate with customers, how

many permanent customers he has, if he would like to spread his customers portfolio. We were

also speaking about honey stock, quantity of hives, about possibility to buy new hives.

A beekeeper Mr. Bednář provided me information with names of some of his customers, who I

did interview. I also gained some information about behavior habits of his persistent customers –

this method of monitoring of customers behavior is called observation – how often consumers

buy honey, how much honey they buy. Mr. Bednář has a special list, where he records the

information.

I did interview with 33 people from Nekoř. Some of the people were customers of Mr. Bednář,

some of them usually buy honey from another beekeeper from the village. I asked questions as

for example follows: Why do you buy honey?; How often do you buy honey?; What is the most

important factor for choice of the best product?; What do you know about advantages of honey?;

What do you know about honey business and actual beekeeping problems?; Are there any factors

that influence you during honey consumption?; Have you ever seen any advertisement on honey

or honey products?

Information that were collected I wrote in the prepared form on the place, where the interview

with a consumer was did. The dates were checked again at home and answers were summarized

in a table in a computer. The reason of summarization of answers was to find out the most

common answers. Also any connection and consumers willingness to buy the product in a case,

when they are influenced by advertisement, was searched. We were speaking about an attractive 

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picture that they have not ever seen and that attract them to buy honey. I was asking if it could be

a reason or motivation for them to buy honey often. I was also checking what their reaction on a

flood of information from beekeeping area. Information about death of bees, about a need of their

daily work for a planet, about a need to increase quantity of beekeeper in the world.

To collect data, information and view about marketing as a practice there were used available

professional literature and internet sources. The sources were used to gain a view, what guerilla

marketing is, how does it work, how does it influence consumer behavior and how is it used in

present, what kinds of instrument does it use.

The literature was studied and then there were important information summarized and elaborated

in the thesis.

4.4 ANALYSIS

Analysis can be provided in a form called description or interpretation and analysis (Barker,

1999). Description should tell not only that participant was uncommunicative, but the method

should describe, how uncommunicative the participant was (Barker, 1999).

Interpretation and analysis are our interpretation of information gained from participants,

interpretation of his answers and doings. The aim is to formulate conclusions and identify model

of behavior typical for whole population or sub-population in context of honey business (Barker,

1999).

Forms of interpretation (Barker, 1999):

 Content analysis – how many times was the motive appeared or how many times was the

motive mentioned by participants. Usually mentioned in a table.

 Discursive analysis – an analysis of meaning of declaration of participants. An attempt to

derive contexts.

 Analysis of the scenario – it reveals the usual regularities and behavioral patterns

accompanying the events, maps social standards and the rules underlying these actions.

4.4.1 Explanation of analysis

The participants of interview were communicative. They were well informed about a positive

impact of honey consumption on their health and they are regular customers. The interview with 

52

one person took 15 minutes and communication was fluent. The interview was done for 33

consumers. According to gained data the author identified a model of typical honey consumer

that will be introduced above.

The in-depth interview with a beekeeper Mr. Bednář took 2 hours. The discussion was aimed to

answer questions about beekeeper´s relationship to his business, his plans in the future, his actual

situation, his goals, his experiences and notices about consumer´s behaviors. During the interview

we tried to find frames of consumer´s habits, what is their motivation to buy honey and if there

are any ways, how to interest them more to they are glad and willing to buy honey product more

times.

The interviewer asked questions about consequence of honey consumption. The goal of the

question was to motivate Mr. Bednář to he understands, how beneficial business he makes.

Customers namely buy honey, because it is healthy, they feel nice and healthy after consumption

of honey. Honey is often used as a barter commodity in villages, especially in remote areas, and

can become a highly significant commodity (Bradbear, 2009).

One of the questions was a question if beekeeper knows his competitors. He mentioned that there

are five beekeepers in the village. There is not any fight among them. I personally appreciate an

approach of the beekeeper, his love to do the business, his activity and patience to produce his

own tools, also his notices in his diary that helped to gain needed data.

The core of the interview was to find a potential of a beekeeper.

4.4.2 SWOT analysis

 I do SWOT analysis for a beekeeper Mr. Bednář, because the analysis can help to find existing

problems or new possibilities of growth. It is an additional part of guerilla marketing plan. It

shows information about key customers, expected competition, possibilities, probabilities, and

actual reality in the honey market.

Per a definition SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is an acronym for strengths,

weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and is a structured planning method that evaluates those

four elements of a project or business venture (Dědková, 2001). 

53

A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a company, product, place, industry, or person. It

involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal

and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.

SWOT analysis is a part of strategic planning of researched company. It is suitable to find mutual

synergies between strengths and weaknesses, opportunities etc. The synergies can be used for

determination strategy and development of company (Jurášková & Horňák, 2012).

Facts and objective factors of the analysis will be used for assessment of a beekeeper and will

help to find suitable strategy: a) How to use opportunities by using of strengths; b) How to use

opportunities to remove or decrease weaknesses; c) How to use strengths to avert threats; d) How

to decrease threats in relation to strengths.

The SWOT analysis can help to find a strategy that will help to earn money in future. It describes

power of a beekeeping organization and shows opportunities that will help to earn money. It is a

suitable instrument to assess work of the organization as a complex.

The SWOT analysis introduces a system into marketing and it is useful first step to map all

factors and organize ideas of a marketer. The SWOT analysis for a beekeeper Mr. Bednář is

displayed on Table 7.

Data was processed per a timetable with an intention to implement it in guerilla strategy/ guerilla

marketing plan.

Compilation of readable tables was followed by following instructions:

• S-O strategy: A developing of new methods, which are suitable for development of

strengths of a beekeeper.

• S-T strategy: Using of strengths to stop threats.

• W-O strategy: Removal of weaknesses for formation of new opportunities.

• W-T strategy: Development of strategies, which can be used for limitation of threats,

which threat our weaknesses. 

54

Table 7: SWOT for a beekeeper.

SWOT for a Beekeeper

STRENGTHS

− Professional knowledge, overview in the branch.

− Willingness to communicate with customers.

− Interesting, beauty, attractive place, where

beekeeper´s hives are placed.

WEAKNESSES

− Few bee colonies.

− No big stock of honey, honey is not in stock for

the whole year.

− Beekeeper is not willing to grow; he does

beekeeping as a hobby and he is not willing to buy

more hives and offer the product to more people.

− Beekeeper does not offer another bee products as a

wax, candles etc.

OPPORTUNITIES

− Use the location where the hives are located and

make surrounding of hives more attractive.

− To start offering honey as a product that should be

part of everyday life.

− To use EU donations to expand his hives.

THREATS

− Pests and diseases of bees, low yield of honey.

− The arrival of new, active beekeepers on the

market.

SOURCE: Own elaboration.

The SWOT analysis shows actual situation of beekeeper Mr. Bednář. According established

notices, he has a good potential to follow recommendation of guerilla marketing. It is his natural

to be honest to his customers and to offer them special service. In this time he only needs to know

more about possibilities, how to interest and make profit. It is possible that if he will be more

informed about actual possibilities of guerilla marketing, he will be able to expand his business.

4.4.3 Interview with consumers

The interview were done for 33 consumers, residents of the village Nekoř. There were placed 15

questions and discussion was fluent. The questions are mentioned in Appendix 1.

The author asked the questions to find out if consumers know and buy honey if they know where

they can buy honey, what is their honey consumption per a year. The author also checked reasons

of buying honey, what motivate them to buy honey. The reason of questioning was to find out

typical consumers behavior, present situation on the market, a common frame of consumers

behavior. On basic of gained information a typical consumer model could be identified. It is 

55

important for consumer to know his target group if he/she wants to communicate with them and

he/she wants to do some advertisement.

The author asked interviewees if they have seen any interesting advertisement in honey business

that attracted them to buy honey or to visit any place where honey is offered. All participants

mentioned that they do not know any advertisement in honey business. They have information

about beekeepers from their surrounding and from their friends. Sometimes they can see an

advertisement in (shop)flayers.

People were attracted by visual form of advertisement and most of them mentioned that they can

imagine a situation that they will change a honey supplier if there is another one who offers them

better service. The most important factor is quality of honey.

The target of visual questioning was to find out if there is any emotional reaction from

consumers. According to their reactions and face expression, they were entertained and

interested. I dare to say that visual advert is a good form of advertising in honey business. It can

attract more consumers who are able to buy the product.

The gathered data was recorded on the prepared paper. The author summarized the data at home.

The data was classified according to frequency of answers. The answers were very similar so the

author decided to create a model of typical honey consumer, who is buying honey regularly and

who needs to be more stimulated and attracted to visit his beekeeper more often. These are tasks

for beekeepers and their guerilla campaigns.

The results were determined on basic of deduction when the asserted statements arrive at a new

statement, new conclusion. The author followed studied literature that is mentioned in theoretical

part and methodology of the thesis. According to studied information, she applied gathered data

on actual case of beekeeper and his customers. These were the guidelines that helped to draw

conclusions.

4.5 RESULTS

Researched subject – a beekeeper Mr. Bednář – is a little trace holder in honey business. He

offers his product to his family, friend and balance of honey stock he can offer to other honey

consumers. Most of his customers are permanent customers, who buy honey per their actual 

56

needs. According information (mentioned in beekeepers beekeeping diary) they usually buy the

consumer´s interest is in autumn, it is time for forest honey.

Mr. Bednář likes his business and he is willing to offer quality service to his customers. However,

he is not willing to expand his business. He mentions that he likes beekeeping as a hobby.

Analyzed data from consumers brings following results: (According to gained data from 33

consumers I created a frame of behavior for average honey consumer.)

 Consumers usually buy honey twice/year. (spring and autumn)

 Average consumption is 4 kg of honey/household.

 The reason and motivation of honey consumption is its positive effect on their healthy.

 Consumers usually gain information from a beekeeper, from family and friends.

 Consumers prefer quality of honey from beekeeper and do not buy honey in a shop.

 Consumers mentioned that they are willing to change a beekeeper if they meet another

beekeeper, who will give them better service. Priority is still quality of honey.

 Consumers are well informed about possibilities where to buy required product and they

know more similar places.

 Consumers are not used to meet an advert in honey business are. They mention that they

are willing to follow more attractive honey supplier.

The results of research also display that guerilla marketing has a positive effect on consumers

thinking. It stimulates them to do required decision more effectively than traditional marketing

(Iqbal, 2015) (Jankovská, 2015).

Participants of research were chosen according recommendation from Mr. Bednář or randomly

selected. The quantity of participants was chosen per a timetable of author. Research and

questioning was done in the street by oral form and interviewer did records into a prepared form

(questionnaire).

Participants of research are inhabitants of the village Nekoř. Consumers agree that they are

satisfied with actual offer of honey and service in honey business. 

57

A beekeeper Mr. Bednář is restrained in this area, he is successful with his existing capacities and

with the yield of honey. He has permanent clients to whom he is able to supply honey.

Beekeeping is a hobby for him and he doesn´t want to extend his business or buy new hives.

During the research of beekeeping area there were noticed many existing problems in beekeeping

area, for example varroa, extinction of hives (Šánová & Benda, 2014) and on basic of found

notices, I would like to recommend guerilla marketing as suitable instrument that can be applied

to inform consumers about the facts and that is able to trigger a reaction to support honey

business by buying honey or its products.

4.6 RECOMMENDATION

Conclusions of research signify that consumers are satisfied with actual situation in honey

business. The same result is for researched beekeeper. However, guerilla marketing brings new

methods of communication and new possibilities.

Just as guerilla marketing can act on people's mindset in the tobacco industry, it can also act in

the field of honey business. The only prerequisite that guerilla marketing requires is activity,

energy, and deployment by beekeepers. These active beekeepers can influence consumers

behavior.

4.6.1Guerilla marketing plan and strategy

There are some information about guerilla marketing plan in chapter 3.2.4. During construction

of guerilla marketing plan for a beekeeper Mr. Bednář the author followed the suggested plan of

(Patalas, 2009) and J. C. Levinson (Levinson, n.d.).

If a beekeeper wants to be successful in his business he needs to have a good strategy. He needs

to define his market. Those are inhabitants of the village Nekoř and surrounding, relatives,

friends, and potentially tourists. They are usually young people and people, who follow healthy

life style, have families with children.

Beekeeper has to define his position in the market. He needs to answer four questions (Patalas,

2009):

1) Does he offer a product that is required from market?

2) Is his offer honest? 

58

3) Is he distinguished from competitive?

4) Is his offer original and is it difficult to imitate his business?

According to the analysis and interview done with the beekeeper, his products do meet the

requirements and answer positively to the above stated questions. He offers healthy, original

product to the customers, produced by himself with organic ingredients and completely

natural. Therefore, his business is unique in its kind and hard to imitate. Every beekeeper

offer in a sort of way an original product. Every honey is distinguished by color, taste, smell

and structure depending on flowers that are pollinated and how is honey gained and

processed. Expect of own character of honey, consumers are attracted by original packaging

and they persuade personal approach of beekeeper.

One of key task of the beekeeper is to be different and better than competition. Beekeeper has

to offer more service than his competitor´s offer. In beekeeper’s area there are five other

competitors that offer similar product. In the time, when I was looking for honey, I asked

inhabitants of Nekoř for an advice where is possible to buy honey. I gained a contact on two

beekeepers. I visited both. I can say that both beekeepers were friendly and communication

with them was pleasant. One of them offered me to see his hives and I decided to cooperate

with him. According my research (interview with consumers) I can confirm that this is the

most often way how to gain a tip for a beekeeper – potential consumer gains a tip for

beekeeper from someone other.

Mr. Bednář wants to interest his customers by personal approach and he offers healthy and

beauty that his consumers gain, when they buy his honey.

His target is to interest consumers to visit his beekeeping area and buy his honey. However,

there might be additional potential that beekeeper expands his target audience – to include

consumers who visit his new website and Facebook, where they can find actual information

about beekeeping and his business. The goal is to open consumer´s mind and their thinking

about beekeeping. If they meet beekeeping brand and honey and honey products in their daily

life, they will feel a need to have honey at home and in a period of time they will become

permanent customers and honey customers. Facebook is the biggest social network all over

the world with 1,6 milliard users and the quantity of users is still arising. There are about 4 

59

milliards people, who use Facebook in Czech Republic. 47 % Americans confirmed that

Facebook influences their buying behavior more than any other social network (Facemag.cz,

2013). This would include creating the website and Facebook page and promoting it.

The strength of beekeeper is personal approach; this may be his main advantage that he will

use to achieve his goal. He could also do some reconstruction of his beekeeping area and

make his place more attractive for his consumers and a place that will serve as a new house

for his bees. He could use natural wood and colors to provoke an interest. More about guerilla

instruments can be found under the chapter 3.2.6.

To answer a question, what kind of product beekeeper offers and what his company

represents, why has his offer a value and why should be his product bought, I can mention

that he offers a product that give his consumers healthy, power and beauty, it adds a sensation

of peace and relaxation, the product is without any sugar and it is purely natural. These are

information that guerilla marketer can provide to his customers, for example, by sending

emails at regular intervals.

Successful beekeeper should define his identity or image in the market. Researched beekeeper

is presented as a beekeeper, who offers natural healthy product from Orlické Mountain. Mr.

Bednář explained that he can invest 4% of his profit to marketing and advertising.

J. C. Levinson´s approach recommend that guerilla marketers should find an inner dramatic

character in their business. The marketers should find reasons, why do consumers want to buy

offered product (Levinson, 2010). Beekeeper can use some of his products characteristics in

his guerilla marketing approach. For instance consumers want to buy honey because they

want to be healthy, they want to drink tasty sweet tea and use honey in their kitchen, they

want to buy a product with natural character, they want to buy a product that is suitable to

their children, they want home-made, fresh, living, clean, natural, pure bee honey with high

content of vitamins, minerals and enzymes.

In the second step guerilla marketer, according to Levinson (2010) should make significant

advantage from the dramatic character. People usually buy advantages, not only basic

characteristics of the product. In a case of honey, people usually buy healthy, young looks,

slim figure, nutritive and healthy breakfast, a helper in a case of cold, a helper in kitchen. 

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These are aspects that can be presented to consumers via guerilla marketing and trigger their

new habits.

The advantages should be presented by unbelievable and astounding form. For example: “Our

fresh home-made honey can help you to chase away your cold in the same manner as tablets

bought in a pharmacy.”

The product and advertisement have to be very interesting to gain an attention of consumers.

According to Skinner consumers change their behavior if there is something that triggers their

new behavior, in the area they live (Patalas, 2009). People need to be stimulated to they do

required action and they need to receive a message that there is something, what they can

buy, which websites they can visit, what kinds of goods they should compare etc. On the

other hand, Freud enhances the role of subconscious (Patalas, 2009). Guerilla marketing by

its instruments makes an effort to evoke both subconscious and consciousness.

The fifth step is to motivate consumers to be involved. Marketer has to communicate to

consumers to visit his new websites or Facebook, to visit his shop, to motivate them to ask for

more and new information, to they visit his presentation that is offered free (a marketer can

offer a thematic seminar or presentation for his customers).

The communication has to be distinct and clean. Usually a marketer should know exactly

what he is speaking about. The question to ask it if the information are clean also for readers,

listeners, consumers? Every potential customer has to understand the basic idea. As an

example of intelligible message I can mention following message: “Make a honey breakfast

to your children and it will be like you give them vitamins, only more tasty.”

4.6.2 Suitable guerilla instruments

According to the data, which I gained and analyzed, I recommend following instruments.

4.6.2.1 Web sites in the Internet

My first idea was to create web sites myself, than I decided to spend the time by another

form. I was not persuade, that there will be somebody, who want to update the pages. Per a

beekeeper Mr. Bednář, he has beekeeping as a hobby, not business. 

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If I talk about beekeeping as about a big area (about honey business), I would like to point out

an importance to have a web sides with actual information and pictures from a bee farm.

4.6.2.2 Facebook

As a sample, I would like to recommend Guerilla Beekeepers on Facebook (Facebook, 2018).

These are beekeepers from Santa Ana from California. They can be good example, how to

run own pages on Facebook. They use many pictures from their daily work. They decided to

build a new house for beekeeping. They follow a motto: “We save bees!”

Their Facebook is full of interesting information from honey business and beekeeping. They

inform consumers about actual problems from beekeeping business, they use attractive

pictures and offer many products that cooperate with beekeeping. On following figures 43 –

49 I mention examples of their work.

Figure 43: A stamp–A meme. Figure 44: A t-shirt with original notice. Figure 45: Beekeepers in action.

 

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018. 

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Figure 46: On line pictures from daily work of beekeeper. Figure 47: Honey product – original packaging.

 

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

Figure 48: Beauty picture from near medow. Figure 49: Guerilla on body – bee tattoo.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018.

4.6.2.3 Direct communication with people

Direct communication with consumers is one of strength site of a beekeeper Mr. Bednář. He

is willing to answer questions from consumers and he is able to provide actual information

from beekeeping by spoken form. He is a reader of a beekeeping magazine and he is well

informed about actual beekeeping problems. He has also many interesting stories from his

practice and daily work. He produces some beekeeping instruments himself. These factors

could be summarized and Mr. Bednář can speak his own stories. Direct communication is one

of recommended guerilla instruments with very law costs. 

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4.6.2.4 Tourism activities in cooperation with a village

Marches are very frequented in this time. The march is an organized walking. Usually

marches are organized by an organization or association and their purpose is to achieve a

common goal. It also cooperates with followed honey business. Maybe it is a task for Czech

beekeepers association.

However, the village is able to have its own march, which can dominate on its web sites.

On the web sites should be also information about activities in the village and about

freeholders, who work there, of course about beekeepers too.

I was in interest, when I visited a Christmas market in the village and there were selling

honey people from another city. It is possible, that all local beekeepers are fully busy and

have a low stock of honey.

4.6.2.5 Activities for children + presents

If I am talking about the area, it is important to interest children to they know, what they eat.

There are many possibilities, how to inform them at ease.

One of recommendation for Guerilla marketers mentioned in theoretical part is to be like a

child. What can be more interesting for each beekeeper than to become child. Than he can

think, what are the best ways to interest children.

In my opinion, it is good to inform children at school, to prepare an interesting lecture for

them. With flayers for parents – advantages and disadvantages using of honey and sugar.

Another type of children activity could be practiced on Children´s day. Beekeeper Mr. Bednář

has beautiful area, where his bees live. There are many trees, meadow, it is near the centre of

village, but it is hidden together. There should be some activities for children with a bee topic.

Maybe could be interesting to interface it with some tourism, to use bee masks, to create

some products, do some exercising, be like a bee etc. 

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4.6.2.6 Shock by quality and price

This type or social attributes is very easy – to keep high quality and low price. And Guerilla

can tell – the second beekeeper has honey by 2 CZK more expensive.

If we talk about quality, than is good to inform consumers about advantages and processes of

gaining of honey. To explain kinds of honey, flowers, which are contained, important

vitamins, minerals and enzymes. There is not needed to invest any money, just only be ready

to inform people. To give them the information, which they need to know to they can decide

to buy more honey or inform their colleagues.

4.6.2.7 Shock by social attitudes

Shocking people by activity and flexibility. Also follow the other instruments mentioned in a

chapter 2. It costs nothing, just only own willing and it makes very good name of beekeeping

organization.

4.6.2.8 To be involved in all activities in the village and near surroundings

If a freeholder needs to capture attention of his possible customers, he needs to be seen, also

heard. People have to know about the product, which he offers. They need to know him

personally and receive actual information from his side. People like successful people with

good charisma.

For example a beekeeper can present a bottle of honey as a present on a ball in this winter

time. The bottle can have some special look (design) to attract attention of people.

4.6.2.9 Advertising in the radio

I am not persuaded, that advertising in the radio should be the correct way in the case of

beekeeper Mr. Bednář. However, what should be more interesting and could make a good

chock is using local radio, which sometimes plays in the streets.

It could be sufficient to have a good relationships with a village major and ask him to place

the advertising there. Question is, how to interpret the advertising. To be a really shocking

Guerilla and tell: „Buy my honey or my bees will stick you!“ or some nice music backed by 

65

humming of bees, this type of advertising could be added also with little flayer in the shop to

people get known, who is the author.

4.6.2.10 Big Bee

In short, to place a big bee on a chimney. Everybody will see it. Some people invest their

money and place Santa Claus figure near to their window at Christmas time. It is funny and

pleasant for eyes, it creates and reminds positivity of Christmas. A bee figure in front of a

house of a beekeeper can trigger similar reaction.

This type of guerilla marketing is used for example by Coca-cola. Their original

advertisement is showed on figure 50.

Figure 50 – Coca-cola street add.

SOURCE: Jankovská, 2015.

4.6.2.11 Brand name – A Meme

“I offer You a Queen among honey.” These are words of a beekeeper, who sells his product

with love. The queen is showed in the figure 51 and it is a new brand name or a meme of

products of Mr. Bednář.

Figure 51: A stamp – Brand name, A Meme.

SOURCE: Facebook – GuerillaBeekeepers 2018. 

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CONCLUSION

This thesis combines SWOT analysis, interviews with consumers and a beekeeper, analysis of

common situation in honey business, and usage of existing examples in researched area that

could be placed in practice by using guerilla instruments and guerilla marketing plan.

The goal of the thesis was to answer two research questions:

1. Can guerilla marketing influence consumer decision making in purchasing honey?

2. What are the ways for small local honey business to apply guerilla marketing and

influence consumer emotions?

To answer the first question I followed existing beekeeping organizations in the world that use

guerilla marketing in their business. Per their experiences guerilla marketing is successful in the

branch. They use many pictorial adverts and inform consumers about news in their business.

They inform consumers about their daily work on the Facebook. They use pictures and photos

from their work with funny or shocking comments, or use actual information from researched

area. Their motto is: “We save bees!” and they build a new home for bees. Their customers are

well informed about actual problems that beekeepers face, they are well informed about positive

impact of consumption of honey and can see on own eyes, how beekeepers work and how is

honey produced.

In Czech Republic originality of guerilla marketing is missing. There are existing specialized web

sites for beekeepers, where are many articles about beekeeping, about actual actions that are

aimed for beekeeping and about actual problems and their solutions. For common consumer these

pages and information are not available, it needs an interest in the branch of a reader so he/she

notices a need to read these articles or visit web sites. What is needed is the first contact with a

consumer initiated by a beekeeper. He can invite consumers to visit mentioned web sites. It can

be done for example by a form of sending emails that will point out that there is something

interesting to read.

Beekeeping is relatively young practice and there is not so many beekeepers. However this field

has been growing in last years which influenced appearance of the professional literature on

instructions or how to run the beekeeping business.

In the present thesis, I have mentioned several examples of image ads with comments that can be

followed by beekeeper Mr. Bednář and can be put in the practice in his business and potentially 

67

raise his profit. Per available information and examples I am persuaded that using the offered

instruments will have positive impact on consumer decision in purchasing honey. A positive

influence of visual guerilla marketing is, for example, researched in a case of Coca-cola.

Participants of Coca-cola research mention that guerilla marketing communication is much more

successful than traditional marketing communication or billboard advertising. For them, guerilla

marketing communication is more innovative memorable and attract more attention (Jankovská,

2015).

One function of visual advertising is its force to regress consumers to an infantile mental level. At

this level, consumer is then more likely to the desired and expected action (Sterba, 1950).

Due to the nature of the perception of pictorial messages, visual information is attributed in

particular to the ability to influence consumers emotions (readers of newspapers, magazines,

television viewers). The pictures direct their view of the published information (for example

photo of a wounded child from a war conflict strengthens anti-war attitudes) (Trampota &

Vojtěchovská, 2010).

On the other hand, the surrounding of Mr. Bednar’s beeking area may also attract more

consumers to come and visit. People tend to be attracted to unusual things. It has positive

influence on their consciousness. In economy it is called a positive externality (Mankiw, 2009).

It is something that is produced by a person or organization, something that makes surrounding

more beautiful, that is additional to the business; and it usually requires extra energy and activity.

It arouses consumers´ emotion and they feel better. People do like to feel good and they are

searching for places where they feel pleasant atmosphere. If they find that place, they will

eventually want to visit the place again. It is a chance to start their new buying habits and new

behavioral patterns. A beekeeper can follow the motto “We save bees!” and addresses consumers

by building new home for bees. Beautiful surrounding will attract new consumers and will have

an impact on their emotions as well.

Emotions relate to the second question asking if application of guerilla marketing and influencing

emotions via advertising triggers consumer behavior and habits. Beekeeper Mr. Bednář can be

the one, who will open consumer´s eyes and will come with information about a need to support

beekeeping area. Guerilla instruments are suitable methods to inform and trigger new behavior

and habits. Guerilla beekeeper can use postcards, birthday cards and more instruments to surprice

consumers. These are not standard and not usual forms of communication with consumers. They 

68

can be irritated, well informed, they can feel happy or entertained by a message or a picture, and

it can trigger their reaction. An example of a successful guerilla marketing campaign are

shocking pictures on cigarettes. Most of people know about the fact that smoking kills, and

pictures and short messages placed on boxes of cigarettes increase awareness about the fact.

Similar action could trigger similar reaction in beekeeping business – it means to trigger new

habit - to use honey in daily life, because honey is a natural medicine.

According findings I can tell that guerilla marketing has a positive impact on consumer behavior

and it is able to influence consumer´s decision and start new consumer´s habits. The ways how to

attract and interest consumers, influence their emotions and trigger new behavior are for example

method of sending emails, regular communication with consumers via Facebook, to involve

consumers to they are a part of the business, to offer them interesting activities, to use a local

radio and remind them that there is honey available for them. The caused shock or surprising will

trigger required action (behavior).

 

69

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Appendix 1

Interview with consumers

1. Do you buy honey regularly?

2. How many honey do you buy per a year?

3. Do you have own beekeeper?

4. How did you know about him?

5. Do you know more beekeepers in your surrounding?

6. Why do you prefer your beekeeper?

7. Do you buy honey in a shop?

8. Why do you prefer honey from beekeeper?

9. Do you know any advertisement from honey business?

10. Do you mean that an advertisement is able to change your buying habits?

11. Do you know actual situation in honey business?

12. Are you interested in visual advertisement?

13. What do you feel if you see following pictures?

14. Would you be motivated by a similar advertisement to buy more honey, or to change the

supplier of honey?

15. Sex, age, education?

 

Figure 7: Possibilities of visual advertisement in honey business.

SOURCE: Google, 2018.